Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management <p>The Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management (APJHM) is a peer-reviewed journal for managers of organisations offering healthcare and aged care services. The APJHM aims to promote the discipline of health management throughout the region by facilitating the transfer of knowledge among readers by widening the evidence base for management practices.<br /><br />*Print 1(1);2006 - 5(1);2010 Online 4(2);2009 - current<br />*ISSN 2204-3136 (online); ISSN 1833-3818 (print)</p> Australasian College of Health Service Management en-US Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management 1833-3818 COVID 19 and its Derivatives- A Relation with Light for Health <p>Light now has many applications in life and plays a vital role in therapeutic and protective fields. In the recent era, many light sources are taken into account for prevention, sterilization, and curing especially artificial lamps. Since the pandemic appeared in 2019, the world has been interested in sterilization by light rays from a physical and applied point of view. In this work, the authors focus on definite spectral bands and their direct effects on the current COVID-19 pandemic spreading prevention. According to the results, until now, the most utilized method for decontamination against COVID-19 is ultraviolet C. The other spectral bands like UVA, UVB, and violet-blue show that they have a more negligible effect on the deactivation of the COVID-19 virus. The UVA and UVB help increase vitamin D in the human body, reflecting positively on the immunity system and increasing the recovery rate. The violet-blue band is helpful in decontamination against bacteria microorganisms. As for the IR band, the studies are still very recent, and until now, there is no recommendation to use this band in sterilization against this pandemic. Studies continued on UV utilization because the world urgently needs industrial and domestic disinfection systems and sterilization. The other bands have another substantial practical effect on health improvement so any people can survive and overcome different types of diseases.</p> Samaa Faramawy Copyright (c) 17 1 Out of Pocket expenditure in Hypertension-related care in India: Findings from National Sample Survey 2017-18 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Objective: To estimate out of pocket (OOP) expenditure associated with hypertension-related hospitalisation and outpatient visits and measure the extent of catastrophic expenditure borne by Indian households.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods: Secondary data analysis of the 75th round on “Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India: Health” by the National Sample Survey Organization. Average hospitalisation expenditure per episode was estimated for hypertension-related hospitalisation and outpatient visit. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to determine the socio-economic factors associated with the catastrophic expenditure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Results:&nbsp; A total of 1351 and 6379 individuals reported hypertension-related hospitalization and outpatient care respectively in the survey. The overall hypertension-related hospitalization rate was 54 per 1, 00,000 persons. &nbsp;Annual direct medical expenses associated with hypertension-related hospitalisation were INR 3,571 (SD 6239) and INR 27,546 (SD 42,791) in public hospitals and private hospitals respectively. OOPE on Medicines constituted on an average 43% (95% CI: 32-52%) and 66% (95% CI: 54-64%) of public sector hospitalisation and outpatient care respectively. We found a significant difference in prevalence of catastrophic expenditure across different quintiles with around two out of five people in the poorest households faced the catastrophic expenditure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusion: The study found the probability of incurring catastrophic expenditure due to hypertension-related hospitalisation was significantly higher in the poorest quintile. The on-going public health efforts towards preventing catastrophic health expenditure need to focus on the availability of drugs and diagnostic tests within public facilities.</p> Subramania Raju Rajasulochana Parthibane S Saravanan E Mathan Kumar Jeyanthi E Anurag Gola Dr Sitanshu Sekhar Kar Copyright (c) 17 1